GEMOLOGY

GEMSTONE CRYSTAL SYSTEMS

Crystal systems of Gemstones

Based on the crystal axes and the angles at which the axes intersect, crystals are divided into seven systems including, Cubic, Tetragonal, hexagonal, trigonal, Orthorhombic, Monoclinic, and Triclinic systems.

1. Cubic (isometric) System ඝනක පද්ධතිය

All three axes have the same length and intersect at right angel. Gem stones from cubic system form there basic shape, including cube, octahedron, dodecahedron.

2. Tetragonal System චාතුර්තක (චතුස්පාදක) පද්ධතිය

The three axes intersect at right angles. Two of the axes have the same length and are located in the same plane. The main axis can be either longer or shorter. Gem stones from cubic system form there basic shape, including tetragonal prism, dipyramid, pyramid with prism.

3. Hexagonal System ෂඩාශ්‍ර පද්ධතිය

Three of the four axes have the same length and are located in one plane. These axes intersect each other at an angle of 120 degree. Typical crystal shapes are hexagonal prisms and pyramids, as well as twelve-sided pyramids and double pyramids.

4. Trigonal System ත්‍රිආශ්‍ර පද්ධතිය

Axes and the angles are similar to the hexagonal system. The difference is one of symmetry. In the case of hexagonal system, the cross section of the prism base is six sided; in trigonal system it is three-sided. Typical crystal forms of the trigonal system are three-sided prisms and pyramids, rhombohedra, and scalenohedra.

5. Orthorhombic System විෂමාබිලම්බක පද්ධතිය

Three axes of different lengths are at right angles to each other. Typical crystal shapes are pinacoids, rhombic prisms, Pyramids, and Double pyramids.

6. Monoclinic System ඒකානතික පද්ධතිය

The three axes are each of different length, two are at right angles to each other and the third one is inclined. Gemstones from monoclinic system form basic shapes of Basal pinacoids and prisms with inclined end faces.

7. Triclinic System ත්‍රියානතික පද්ධතිය

All three axes are of different lengths and inclined to each other. Typical crystal forms are paired faces.

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